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When someone falls over, maybe they twist their ankle or they twist their wrist, then they can have a strain or a sprain. What we are dealing with here is not actually a break, but we are dealing with damage to the soft tissues. So what we are dealing here is damage to things like ligaments and tendons. Now, these can be very painful and can cause swelling. And although it's not a break, if you are not sure, we may as well just treat this as a broken arm or a broken ankle, because it's very difficult from a first aid point of view to decide if someone has actually broken their ankle or just strained or sprained it. 

What we are dealing with here when we treat it is what's called the RICE procedure. Now, R equals rest. We need to rest the injured limb. So if we are dealing with an ankle, we need to rest it. We don't want to put any weight on it. We need to sit the person down. Then we have got I. I is for ice. Now, what we are trying to do is to put something cold over the limb, so when you have got something like an ankle, then we could use ice, actually in a plastic bag and then wrapped up in a towel or you can use chemical ice packs. Now, chemical ice pack has a sachet of liquid in it and then some crystals. So what we do with these is we just squeeze the liquid until the liquid comes out. This will mix with the crystals. Give it a shake. Once that melts down, it is now very cold, so we can actually put that over the injured part and this will help to reduce the pain.

When you are dealing with anything like this, cold things, you need to make sure you are not actually going to burn the skin. So if using ice packs, just wrap them up in a tea cloth or a dressing or something, or just a sling if you have got a first aid kit there. That's to avoid any potential burns. The next one is C for compression. We need to apply a crepe bandage on to the limb to actually stop the swelling. With these crepe bandages, we can apply them quite easily. Again, same as we did with the bleeding, we keep it distantly furthest away from the heart, apply the bandage over. Just keep wrapping it around. Once it's wrapped round to the end, we can then apply the pin or the clips or we can use Micropore tape to keep it in place. The final part of the RICE procedure is E, which is elevate. we are elevating the injured part, just to reduce the swelling by draining fluid out. So if it's the ankle, we can put that under, pop a bag underneath it, something like that, just to allow the fluid to flow out. So we need to rest the injured parts, apply ice or anything cold, compression using a crepe bandage, and E, elevate.

Now, this person can't move his ankle, it's probably likely they can't walk on it, it may be we need to call emergency services or help them. It may be that once you put this treatment on, fairly quickly, they start to feel a little bit better. And this may be an indication that it's not actually a broken limb, but if in doubt, get them checked out at the hospital.